Wednesday, November 08, 2006

Christian History I Presentation

5.11.330Constantine Founds “Nova Roma”

-Built in 5 years
-Surrounded on West by walls
-Includes a huge imperial palace
-Main church is Hagia Sophia I
-Built in a relatively small town of “Byzantium”
-Name “Nova Roma” didn’t take; began to be called “The City” or “The City of Constantine,” transliterated Constantinople

337-361Reign of Constantius II
-Hagia Sophia I is lost; Constantius II builds ver 2.0

408-450Reign of Theodosius II

-In 413-414, built defensive wall around expanded section of the city
-Founded University of Constantinople
-In 438, Publishes Codex Theodosianus

9.4.476Fall of Rome
-Romulus Augustus deposed by Odacer
-Roman Empire continues on with Constantinople as capital

527-565Reign of Justinian

-Justinian was the nephew of emperor Justin I
-upon his election, Justinian surrounds himself with talent; wife Theodora, finance minister John the Cappadocian, and genius generals Belisarius and Narses
-He stands for Catholic beliefs and a revival of the Roman Empire
-He is almost killed in the Nika Riots, 532
-Hagia Sophia II is burned in the Riots, as well as much of the city
-Justinian commissions the building of the final version of the great church; Anthemius is the architect
-Hagia Sophia III is considered by many the 8th wonder of the world; perhaps one of the largest architectural feats for centuries
-Justinian commissions Corpus Juris Civilis; the Justinian Law Code
-Commander Belisarius conquered the Vandals in Africa
-Then recaptured Rome and all of Italy, Sicily, and some of Spain
-Byzantine Empire at its height

565-1204Nationalistic Age

-Within a few years of Justinian’s death, much of the reconquered land was lost
-Byzantine Empire retained that size and existed more or less as a nation
-Crusades, esp. the Fourth, would cause much damage to the empire; the Fourth included the sacking of Constantinople (even though Alexios I called for help) in 1204

1204-1453Decline of Byzantine Empire

-Byzantine Empire never recovered from the sacking from the Fourth Crusade
-Byzantine Empire was split into three: Nicea, Trebizond, and Epirus

5.29.1453Fall of Constantinople
-Sultan Mehmet II led the Ottoman Empire to conquer Constantinople
-Mehmet II had 85,000 men to the Christians’ 7000
-The siege lasted 53 days

1453-1923Ottoman Empire

-Constantinople served as the capital
-Sultan Mehmet II contributed many great buildings to the city of Constantinople, including the Grand Bazaar, Topkapi Palace, countless schools and baths
-Hagia Sophia was converted into a mosque
-Sultan Ahmed would attempt to out-do Hagia Sophia III with his “Blue Mosque” built between 1609-1616

1923-presentRepublic of Turkey

-Capital of Turkey was moved to Ankara
-In 1935, Hagia Sophia III was secularized and converted to Aya Sofya Museum
-Constantinople officially re-named Istanbul


Hagia Sophia

Full Shot

Close Up

Floor Plan


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